Updated by Derek Butcher & Eric Gouda: 10-02-2020 10:35:45.

1STAMENS & STYLEShorter than or equalling the petals.7
Stamens shorter than petals but stylekrystofii
exceeding. Looks like large flowered crocata
Longer than the petals.2
3INFLORESCENCEPolystichous. Densely 7-12 floweredV. poenulata
3AINFLORESCENCEWide (4 - 7 cm), swordshaped, many flowered3F
Thin (to 1 cm) almost roundish, few flowered.3B
Flower yellow, sometimes also reddish.
Narrow, to 2cm wide, 7cm long, petalsrayonesensis
without appendage
Narrow,(2 - 4cm) lance-like 10 - 24 cm long,3C
petals yellow to yellowish green with
3BLEAFSpreading to all sidesschiedeana
long filiform towards the tip.
Strongly bent to one side, awllikeglabrior
"towards the tip; almost succulent"
3CLEAF BLADEGrey green3D
3DINFLORESCENCEerect, spike 3cm wide, floral bracts purpleV. triangularis
pendulous, spikes to 2cm wideincurva
Floral bracts red 25 - 35 mm long
3EFLORAL BRACTSpink 4.5 cm long, spikes to 4cm widepatula
grey green, to 3.5cm long,yaconorensis
spikes to 3cm wide
3FINFLORESCENCEto 17cm long, floral bracts mainly yellow butlampropoda
red at base, even. Leaves narrow triangular,
with caudate tips, petals yellow
to 12 cm long, floral bracts red, nerved.nervata
Leaves narrow triangular without caudate
tips, petals cream
4FLOWER SPIKEArranged digitally4D
Arranged thickly on the main axis, short5
swordlike, almost roundish, bracts close
Arranged laxly, bipinnate4A
Arranged laxly, bipinnate,petals yellow,V. lubbersii
leaves grey-green
4APETALScream without appendage, leaves grey4B
yellow without appendage, leaves appearingkretzii
bright green
yellow with appendage, leaves grey green4C
4BLEAFWith coarse grey scales, 15-20 cm long.pringlei
Plant freely offsetting
With minute pale appressed scales, toutriculata
100cm long. Plant rarely offsetting.
4CSPIKESwith flowers more than distichous, plant aV corcovadensis
bulbose rosette
with flowers distichous, plant a funnel-formV lubbersii
4DPETALSwith appendageV lubbersii
without appendagelampropoda var. major
Hanging, side-spikes at right angles, petalsalfredo-lauii
pale yellowish-green
Hanging, side-spikes almost parallel, petalsincurva
yellow-green with appendage
5AINFLORESCENCEThick, cone shaped, green with yellow petalsaui
Not cone shaped.5B
5BFLORAL BRACTDensely grey scaled. scape to 55 cm longroseoscapa
spikes almost erect Flower pale yellow green.
Densely brown scaled, scape to 18 cm longmixtecorum
spikes at 45 to 70 degrees
Not scaled or if any, at tip.6
6PRIMARY BRACT30 - 35 cm long. Petal yellow greencarlos hankii
Up to 12 cm long.6A
6AFLORAL BRACTWholly yellow green.Leaf sheath pale lilackalmbacheri
Green with top portion red.schusteri
Leaf sheath dark brown.
7 (1)INFLORESCENCECompound.29
Simple or reduced to one flower.8
8INFLORESCENCEMore than one flowered.16
One flowered.9
9PLANTLike club moss. Flower sessile, yellowminutiflora
Not like club moss.10
10PLANTLong, filiform, hanging similar to beard mossusneoides
Growing otherwise.11
11LEAFArranged distichously.13
12LEAFTo 2 cm long. Scape short or missingrectangula
Inflorescence mostly 1 flower, yellowish
to brownish
4 - 15 cm long.12A
12APLANTShort stemmed.12B
Stemless. Inflorescence 1 flowered. Flowerurea
golden yellow. Leaf 5 - 15 cm long.
12BBRACT2 many nerved scape bracts. Floralfunebris
bracts smooth. Inflorescence mainly
1 - 2 flowered. Flower dirty brownish yellow.
1 Floral bract, 7 -10 nerved. 1 flowered.erecta
13LEAFThin, awllike.13A
Thick, bent into crescent shape.14
13ALEAFCross section round, leaf tip flat spatulate.mollis
Flower dirty brownish yellow.
Flowers brown-reddish, plant creepingmollis var reptans
Cross section round, leaf tip pungent, floralcastellanii
bracts glabrous, nerved, petals yellowish
Cross section NOT round, edges bent to form13B
a groove, leaf tips long filiform.
Flower yellow to brownish yellow
13BFLORAL BRACTAlmost round. Sepals stocky with stronglycapillaris
developed nerves. Petals lancelike.
Broad triangular. Sepals slender withvirescens
weakly developed nerves. Petals tongueshaped
14LEAF BLADEIn cross section drawn together.gilliesii
In cross section round.15
15SEPALSEqually long, almost free.myosura
Joined high at the back.retorta
16 (8)FLOWERArranged distichously on rhachis.19
Arranged spirally.17
17FLORAL BRACTGreenish yellow.18
Pink. Flower pale yellow, scented.jucunda
18FLOWERStrong yellow, scentless.ixioides
Dirty yellowish brown, scented.humilis
19PLANTLike club moss, petals pale yellow, leaves totricholepis
15mm long
Like club moss, petals yellow to brown,copynii
leaves to 30mm long
Not like club moss.20
Spirally arranged.21
Short stem.22
21ALEAF BLADEVery thin, setaceous 1-2mm widedexteri
Flowers cream.
Not setaceous.21B
21BLEAF BLADELong - to 60 cms. Petals cream to dirty yellowcornuta
during day having opened as white during
previous night -Luther
Short 25cm or less21C
21CPETALYellow. Leaf blade 15mm wide,urea
dense grey scaled
Yellow-brown, 4 mm wideaurea v. minor
Yellow/orange. Leaf blade 3 - 5mm wide,crispa
wavy edges, darkgreen to dark reddish brown.
orange with wavy edges, leaf blade 8-10mmericii
wide, straight edges, grey
22LEAF26 cm long, 3 - 4 mm wide contrasting withV. plurifolia
almost black sheath
10 - 18 cm long.23
To 5 cm long.24
23FLOWERLaxly arranged on rhachis.humilis
Densely imbricate on rhachis, to4.5cm long,porongoensis
petals yellowish brown
Densely imbricate on rhachis, to 10cm long.lotteae
petals yellow
large, petals 7-9 cm long, with edges serratedxiphioides v lutea
and strongly wavy
24LEAFThe small rosette almost erect,straight.loliacea
Inflorescence 4 - 16 flowered
Flower yellowish green.
The small rosette widened, stiff,bentfunebris
Inflorescence 1 - 2 flowered.
Flower dirty yellow-brown.
25 (20)LEAF BLADEIn cross section drawn together on the side.gilliesii
In cross section round to triangular26
26LEAFWith large spreading scales.crocata
Flower large, golden yellow, strong scent
Dense silvery tomentose, petals yellowishirta
forming a tube
With appressed scales.27
27FLOWERGreenish yellow to brownish yellow.27A
Leaf thIn, round, awllike straight.
Pale yellow. Leaf bent.28
27AINFLORESCENCE2-3 flowered, petals brownish yellowcotagaitensis
sometimes 2 flowered27B
27BFLORAL BRACT -Almost round. Sepals stocky,capillaris
strongly nerved. Petals lancelike
Broad triangular. Sepals slender,virescens
weakly nerved. Petals tongue shaped
28SEPALSEqually long, almost free.myosura
connate high at the back.retorta
10mm long, lepidote, floral bract 14 mm longmandonii
29 (7)PLANTWith stem or short stem.30
30SEPALSsymmetric, flowers distichousstreptocarpa aureiflora
symmetric, flowers polystichous.humilis
asymmetric, flowering to 12 cm high, spikesR miniata
less than 1cm long, petals yellow
asymmetric, flowering to 100-130 cm, spikesR gentryana
1.5 - 2.5 cm long. Inflor tripinnate
asymmetric, flowering 120-150cm tall, stemR terrestris
20-50 cm long, spikes 10-17 cm long, inflor
tripinnate, flowers secund
asymmetric, flowering to 2.66 m, spikesR strobeliorum
2-3 cm long, inflor tripinnate, petals pale
31FLOWERWith asymmetrical sepals.37
(In Racinaea and flowers generally small )
With symmetrical sepals.32
32PLANTBulblike at base. Leaf thin, grasslike.disticha
Inflorescence mostly erect.
Flower yellow. Petal thin.
Not bulblike at base.33
Straw coloured, prominantly nerved, flowersasplundii
lax, spreading. Inflo compound. Branches to
13 cm long
colour unknown, leaves ligulate withcarrierei
purple spots beneath, scape decurved,
inflorescence compound, dense to 20cm long
Other Colours36
34RHACHISclearly visible, inflorescence tripinnatedelicatula
clearly visible, inflo bipinnate, cylindric, toazuayensis
10x2.5cm, petals with appendage
not clearly visible35
35SPIKE2.5cm wide, primary bracts exceeding thebuseri
spike, inflorescence 30cm long,
2 cm wide. The bottom primaryalfredo-lauii
bract as long as the spike.
1.4 cm wide. Primary bractrauschii
always shorter than the spike.
36LEAFTongue like, greenish often purple or redvenusta
spotted. Petals cream to dirty yellow during
day having opened as white during previous
night - Luther
narrow triangular, grey36A
36AFLOWERLaxly arranged on the rhachis. Flower bracthumilis
green. Flower yellow with brown blotches or
pale yellow, scented with wide petal blade.
Densely arranged on rhachis. Floral bractbarthlottii
green or orange. Flower cream, very small.
37 (31)FLOWERSecund42
Not secund38
38FLOWERLaxly arranged on rhachis.40
subdense, plant forming a large ellipsoidR grantii
pseudobulb, inflor with ferrugineous
Densely arranged.39
39INFLORESCENCEwith brown stellate scalesR. gilmartiniae
with cinereous indument, spikes withR pattersoniae
ferruginous indument, tripinnate, petals
without brown stellate scales39A
39AFLORAL BRACTAs long as the sepals or a bit longer, infloR spiculosa
lax, bipinnate to tripinnate, branches
pointing in all directions
spiculosa with most branches turned to onevar stenoglossa
side (secund)
spiculosa but floral bracts 4-5 mm not 6-9 mmvar micrantha
long, spikes laxly flowered
spiculosa but leaf blades irregularly cross-var ustulata
banded with dark purple, inflor bipinnate
a bit longer than the sepals, inflo denseR rothschuhiana
a bit longer than the sepals, inflor laxlyR zingleri
branched, bipinnate, spikes up to 1.3 cm long
dense flowered
longer than sepals by 4 mm, inflor denseR goudae
bipinnate, flowering 30-50 cm high, floral
bracts carinate
longer than the sepals by 7 mm, inflor denseR wuelfinghoffii
trippinate at base then bipinnate, flowering
70-100 cm high, floral bracts not keeled
petals up to 1 cm long, yellow
much longer than sepalsR adscendens
Shorter than sepals.39B
39BINFLORESCENCEbipinnate, Nicaragua to PanamaR contorta
quadripinnate, Colombia, Ecuador.R penlandii
penlandii with a much reduced primary bractvar. pedunculata
40FLORAL BRACTSglabrous to pale scales40A
with dense scales40B
40AFLORAL BRACTSglabrous, sepals lepidote, inflo bipinnateR homostachya
with ca 10 spikes
glabrous, to 13 mm long, sepals sparselyR elegans
lepidote, inflor tripinnate, spikes to 10cm long
petals yellow
40BFLORAL BRACTSwith coarse brown stellate scales same asR. kessleri
sepals, rhachis geniculate
with dense scales40J
40CINFLORESCENCEquadripinnate, leaves rosulate 40cm longR quadripinnata
sepala obovate, broadly rounded, 5mm long,
glabrous, floral bracts nerved
tripinnate or bipinnate40D
40EPLANTrosulate, leaves narrow triangular, denselyR sinuosa
lepidote 30x2cm, sepals 4-5mm long, lepidote
40FFLORAL BRACTSsulcate, with strong midnerveR subalata
evenR monticola
40GPLANTrosulate, branches 2cm long, sepals slightlyR pseudotetrantha
asymmetric1cm long, petals orange
pseudobulb to tubular40H
40HPLANTtubular, leaves 40cm long, branches 4cmR cuspidata
long, sepals cuspidate with dense scales
40IBRANCHES2cm long, spreading to 45 degrees, sepalsR schumanniana
broad elliptic
5cm long, erect, sepals apiculate,shorterR adpressa
to equalling floraL bracts
adpressa with sepals exceeding floral bractsadpressa ssp orthiantha
40JLEAF SHEATHWith large spots.40K
Not spotted, or very slightly spotted41
40KLEAF SHEATHWith large purple spots.R aeris-incola
Petals pale yellow.
With dark wine-red spots.R crispa
Petals yellow/orange.was crispa v. tustii
41LEAF BLADESedges not waved, spotted41B
edges not waved, not spotted41A
edges strongly wavedR. hauggii
41AFLOWERSpreading from rhachis. Spikes long stipitateR ropalocarpa
leaf sheaths not spotted, petals very
small, yellow
spreading from axis, inflo tripinnate, almostR tripinnata
throughout, spikes short stipitate, leaves
Adjacent to rhachis. Leaf sheaths slightlyR pugiformis
spotted. Leaves narrow triangular Petals
41BINFLORESCENCEtripinnate, leaf blades 3-6mm wide, ColombiaR. dielsii
& Ecuador
tripinnate, leaf blades 6cm wide with fine redR marioportillae
spots, plant to 35 cm high, petals yellow
bipinnate, leaf blades 8-12mm wide, Perupendulispica
& Bolivia
42 (37)FLOWERUpward pointing.R tetrantha
Downward pointing. Inflor tripinnateR pectinata
petals yellow
downward pointing, inflor tripinnate,R guacamayosensis
petals cream, inflor with ferrugineous scales
downward poniting but floral bracts remainR hasei
distichous, petals creamy yellow
downwrd pointing, inflor probably bipinnateR macrantha
flowers large, greenish cream, 16-19mm long
downward pointing, inflor tripinnate, archingR penduliflora
to one side, sepals abaxially densely covered
with ferrugineous trichomes, petals yellow
downward pointing, inflor tripinnate, spikesR tillii
3-6 cm long, flowers lax, pedicels 2mm long
petals cream